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INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES

There are 40 questions on this question paper.

Each question carries one mark.

 

 

READING PASSAGE 1

 

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–13, which are based on Reading

Passage 1 below.

 

MAKING TIME FOR SCIENCE

 

Chronobiology might sound a little futuristic – like something from a science

fiction novel, perhaps – but it’s actually a field of study that concerns one of the oldest

processes life on this planet has ever known: short-term rhythms of time and their effect

on flora and fauna.

 

This can take many forms. Marine life, for example, is influenced by tidal

patterns. Animals tend to be active or inactive depending on the position of the sun or

moon. Numerous creatures, humans included, are largely diurnal – that is, they like to

come out during the hours of sunlight. Nocturnal animals, such as bats and possums,

prefer to forage by night. A third group are known as crepuscular: they thrive in the lowlight

of dawn and dusk and remain inactive at other hours.

 

When it comes to humans, chronobiologists are interested in what is known as

the circadian rhythm. This is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to

undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day. Aside from sleeping at night and

waking during the day, each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood

pressure and body temperature. Not everyone has an identical circadian rhythm. ‘Night

people’, for example, often describe how they find it very hard to operate during the

morning, but become alert and focused by evening. This is a benign variation within

circadian rhythms known as a chronotype.

 

Scientists have limited abilities to create durable modifications of chronobiological demands. Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms, for example, but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers when we breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time. Plants appear no more malleable in this respect; studies demonstrate that vegetables grown in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those grown in greenhouses and ripened by

laser.

 

Knowledge of chronobiological patterns can have many pragmatic implications

for our day-to-day lives. While contemporary living can sometimes appear to subjugate

biology – after all, who needs circadian rhythms when we have caffeine pills, energy

drinks, shift work and cities that never sleep? – keeping in synch with our body clock is

important.

The average urban resident, for example, rouses at the eye-blearing time of 6.04

a.m., which researchers believe to be far too early. One study found that even rising at

7.00 a.m. has deleterious effects on health unless exercise is performed for 30 minutes

afterward. The optimum moment has been whittled down to 7.22 a.m.; muscle aches,

headaches and moodiness were reported to be lowest by participants in the study who

awoke then.

 

Once you’re up and ready to go, what then? If you’re trying to shed some extra

pounds, dieticians are adamant: never skip breakfast. This disorients your circadian

rhythm and puts your body in starvation mode. The recommended course of action is to

follow an intense workout with a carbohydrate-rich breakfast; the other way round and

weight loss results are not as pronounced.

 

Morning is also great for breaking out the vitamins. Supplement absorption by the

body is not temporal-dependent, but naturopath Pam Stone notes that the extra boost at

breakfast helps us get energised for the day ahead. For improved absorption, Stone

suggests pairing supplements with a food in which they are soluble and steering clear of

caffeinated beverages. Finally, Stone warns to take care with storage; high potency is

best for absorption, and warmth and humidity are known to deplete the potency of a

supplement.

 

After-dinner espressos are becoming more of a tradition – we have the Italians to

thank for that – but to prepare for a good night’s sleep we are better off putting the

brakes on caffeine consumption as early as 3 p.m. With a seven hour half-life, a cup of

coffee containing 90 mg of caffeine taken at this hour could still leave 45 mg of caffeine

in your nervous system at ten o’clock that evening. It is essential that, by the time you

are ready to sleep, your body is rid of all traces.

 

Evenings are important for winding down before sleep; however, dietician

Geraldine Georgeou warns that an after-five carbohydrate-fast is more cultural myth

than chronobiological demand. This will deprive your body of vital energy needs.

Overloading your gut could lead to indigestion, though. Our digestive tracts do not shut

down for the night entirely, but their work slows to a crawl as our bodies prepare for

sleep. Consuming a modest snack should be entirely sufficient.

 

Questions 1–7

 

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 1–7 on your answer sheet, write

 

TRUE               if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE             if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN     if there is no information on this

 

1          Chronobiology is the study of how living things have evolved over time.

2          The rise and fall of sea levels affects how sea creatures behave.

3          Most animals are active during the daytime.

4          Circadian rhythms identify how we do different things on different days.

5          A ‘night person’ can still have a healthy circadian rhythm.

6          New therapies can permanently change circadian rhythms without causing harm.

7          Naturally-produced vegetables have more nutritional value.

 


 

 

Questions 8–13

 

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

 

Write the correct letter in boxes 8–13 on your answer sheet.

 

8          What did researchers identify as the ideal time to wake up in the morning?

A         6.04

B         7.00

C         7.22

D         7.30

 

9          In order to lose weight, we should

 

A         avoid eating breakfast

B         eat a low carbohydrate breakfast

C         exercise before breakfast

D         exercise after breakfast

 

10        Which is NOT mentioned as a way to improve supplement absorption?

 

A avoiding drinks containing caffeine while taking supplements

B taking supplements at breakfast

C taking supplements with foods that can dissolve them

D storing supplements in a cool, dry environment

 

11        The best time to stop drinking coffee is

 

A         mid-afternoon

B         10 p.m.

C         only when feeling anxious

D         after dinner

 

 

12        In the evening, we should

 

A         stay away from carbohydrates

B         stop exercising

C         eat as much as possible

D         eat a light meal

 

13        Which of the following phrases best describes the main aim of Reading Passage 1?

 

 

A         to suggest healthier ways of eating, sleeping and exercising

B         to describe how modern life has made chronobiology largely irrelevant

C         to introduce chronobiology and describe some practical applications

D         to plan a daily schedule that can alter our natural chronobiological rhythms


 

 

READING PASSAGE 2

 

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading

Passage 2 below.

 

The Triune1 Brain

 

The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities.  The reptilian cortex also houses the “startle centre”, a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defence. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodiledefending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs.

 

Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to

mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering

feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same

sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship

networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church,

school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and

comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and

encourages us to seek companionship.

 

 

Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans

eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of

morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex –

1 Triune = three-in-one which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly

restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember

simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple

lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes

unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the

laws of gravity and a concern for human rights).

 

 

The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to

particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate

into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the

following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to

sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class

degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean groundbreaking

contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our

drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex.

 

 

Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain

damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for

example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a

person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the

reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes.

 

 

Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic

damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the

presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy2,

“one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”.

In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour.

Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and

emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express

concern for others.

 

 

One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named

Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a

considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work

as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality.

Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities

suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest,

however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover

an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the

potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.

2 Lobotomy = surgical cutting of brain nerves

 

 

Questions 14–22

 

Classify the following as typical of

 

A         the reptilian cortex

B         the limbic cortex

C         the neocortex

 

Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 14–22 on your answer sheet.

 

14        giving up short-term happiness for future gains

15        maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life

16        experiencing the pain of losing another

17        forming communities and social groups

18        making a decision and carrying it out

19        guarding areas of land

20.       developing explanations for things

21        looking after one’s young

22        responding quickly to sudden movement and noise

 

Questions 23–26

 

Complete the sentences below.

 

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

 

Write your answers in boxes 23–26 on your answer sheet.

 

23 A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as ………………….

24 ………………… in humans is associated with limbic disruption.

25 An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his ………………….

26 After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s ………………… and higher-order thinking.

 

 

 

READING PASSAGE 3

 

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27–40, which are based on Reading

Passage 3 below.

 

HELIUM’S FUTURE UP IN THE AIR

 

A In recent years we have all been exposed to dire media reports concerning the

impending demise of global coal and oil reserves, but the depletion of another key nonrenewable

resource continues without receiving much press at all. Helium – an inert,

odourless, monatomic element known to lay people as the substance that makes

balloons float and voices squeak when inhaled – could be gone from this planet within a

generation.

 

B Helium itself is not rare; there is actually a plentiful supply of it in the cosmos. In

fact, 24 per cent of our galaxy’s elemental mass consists of helium, which makes it the

second most abundant element in our universe. Because of its lightness, however, most

helium vanished from our own planet many years ago. Consequently, only a miniscule

proportion – 0.00052%, to be exact – remains in earth’s atmosphere. Helium is the byproduct

of millennia of radioactive decay from the elements thorium and uranium. The

helium is mostly trapped in subterranean natural gas bunkers and commercially

extracted through a method known as fractional distillation.

 

C The loss of helium on Earth would affect society greatly. Defying the perception

of it as a novelty substance for parties and gimmicks, the element actually has many

vital applications in society. Probably the most well known commercial usage is in

airships and blimps (non-flammable helium replaced hydrogen as the lifting gas du jour

after the Hindenburg catastrophe in 1932, during which an airship burst into flames and

crashed to the ground killing some passengers and crew). But helium is also

instrumental in deep-sea diving, where it is blended with nitrogen to mitigate the dangers

of inhaling ordinary air under high pressure; as a cleaning agent for rocket engines; and,

in its most prevalent use, as a coolant for superconducting magnets in hospital MRI

(magnetic resonance imaging) scanners.

 

D The possibility of losing helium forever poses the threat of a real crisis because

its unique qualities are extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible to duplicate (certainly, no

biosynthetic ersatz product is close to approaching the point of feasibility for helium,

even as similar developments continue apace for oil and coal). Helium is even cheerfully

derided as a “loner” element since it does not adhere to other molecules like its cousin,

hydrogen. According to Dr. Lee Sobotka, helium is the “most noble of gases, meaning

it’s very stable and non-reactive for the most part … it has a closed electronic configuration, a very tightly bound atom. It is this coveting of its own electrons that

prevents combination with other elements’. Another important attribute is helium’s

unique boiling point, which is lower than that for any other element. The worsening

global shortage could render millions of dollars of high-value, life-saving equipment

totally useless. The dwindling supplies have already resulted in the postponement of

research and development projects in physics laboratories and manufacturing plants

around the world. There is an enormous supply and demand imbalance partly brought

about by the expansion of high-tech manufacturing in Asia.

 

E The source of the problem is the Helium Privatisation Act (HPA), an American

law passed in 1996 that requires the U.S. National Helium Reserve to liquidate its helium

assets by 2015 regardless of the market price. Although intended to settle the original

cost of the reserve by a U.S. Congress ignorant of its ramifications, the result of this fire

sale is that global helium prices are so artificially deflated that few can be bothered

recycling the substance or using it judiciously. Deflated values also mean that natural

gas extractors see no reason to capture helium. Much is lost in the process of extraction.

As Sobotka notes: "[t]he government had the good vision to store helium, and the

question now is: Will the corporations have the vision to capture it when extracting

natural gas, and consumers the wisdom to recycle? This takes long-term vision because

present market forces are not sufficient to compel prudent practice”. For Nobel-prize

laureate Robert Richardson, the U.S. government must be prevailed upon to repeal its

privatisation policy as the country supplies over 80 per cent of global helium, mostly from

the National Helium Reserve. For Richardson, a twenty- to fifty-fold increase in prices

would provide incentives to recycle.

 

F A number of steps need to be taken in order to avert a costly predicament in the

coming decades. Firstly, all existing supplies of helium ought to be conserved and

released only by permit, with medical uses receiving precedence over other commercial

or recreational demands. Secondly, conservation should be obligatory and enforced by a

regulatory agency. At the moment some users, such as hospitals, tend to recycle

diligently while others, such as NASA, squander massive amounts of helium. Lastly,

research into alternatives to helium must begin in earnest.

 

 

Questions 27–31

 

Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A–F.

 

Which paragraph contains the following information?

 

Write the correct letter, A–F, in boxes 27–31 on your answer sheet.

 

27 a use for helium which makes an activity safer

28 the possibility of creating an alternative to helium

29 a term which describes the process of how helium is taken out of the ground

30 a reason why users of helium do not make efforts to conserve it

31 a contrast between helium’s chemical properties and how non-scientists think

about it

 

Questions 32–35

 

Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 32–35 on your answer sheet, write

 

YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

 

32 Helium chooses to be on its own.

33 Helium is a very cold substance.

34 High-tech industries in Asia use more helium than laboratories and manufacturers

in other parts of the world.

35 The US Congress understood the possible consequences of the HPA.

 

 

Questions 36–40

 

Complete the summary below.

 

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

 

Write your answers in boxes 36–40 on your answer sheet.

 

Sobotka argues that big business and users of helium need to help look after helium

stocks because 36 ……………….. will not be encouraged through buying and selling

alone. Richardson believes that the 37 ……………….. needs to be withdrawn, as the

U.S. provides most of the world’s helium. He argues that higher costs would mean

people have

 

38 ……………….. to use the resource many times over.

 

People should need a 39 ……………….. to access helium that we still have.

 

 

Furthermore, a 40 ……………….. should ensure that helium is used carefully.

 

 

=======================================================================

ANSWERS

 

 

 

Academic Test One: Reading

 

ANSWERS

 

Each question correctly answered scores 1 mark. Correct spelling is needed in all answers.

 

Section 1

 

1. FALSE

2. TRUE

3. NOT GIVEN

4. FALSE

5. TRUE

6. FALSE

7. TRUE

8. C

9. C

10. B

11. A

12. D

13. C

 

Section 2

 

14. C

15. A

16. B

17. B

18. C

19. A

20. C

21. B

22. A

23. brain dead

24. sociopathic behaviour

25. neocortex

26. animal propensities

 

Section 3

 

27. C

28. D

29. B

30. E

31. A

32. Yes

33. Not given

34. Not given

35. No

36. prudent practice

37. privatisation policy

38. incentives

39. permit

 

40. regulatory agency

 

 

 

 

The two pie charts below show the online shopping sales for retail sectors in Canada in 2005 and 2010.


Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Write at least 150 words.